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Bladder cancer - Pongo abelii

 

Model information
Identifier: BMID000000016403
Format: SBML L3 V1 (Layout, Qualitative Models)
Project: path2models
Categories: non-metabolic
Submission: 17 May 2012 17:45:52 UTC
Last modified: 08 Dec 2012 01:17:32 UTC
Published: 20 May 2012 00:49:21 UTC
Annotations
occursIn Pongo abelii Taxonomy
isDerivedFrom Bladder cancer KEGG Pathway
Notes
Model of “Bladder cancer” in “Pongo abelii (Sumatran orangutan)”
The urothelium covers the luminal surface of almost the entire urinary tract, extending from the renal pelvis, through the ureter and bladder, to the proximal urethra. The majority of urothelial carcinoma are bladder carcinomas, and urothelial carcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter account for only approximately 7% of the total. Urothelial tumours arise and evolve through divergent phenotypic pathways. Some tumours progress from urothelial hyperplasia to low-grade non-invasive superficial papillary tumours. More aggressive variants arise either from flat, high-grade carcinoma in situ (CIS) and progress to invasive tumours, or they arise de novo as invasive tumours. Low-grade papillary tumors frequently show a constitutive activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras pathway, exhibiting activating mutations in the HRAS and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) genes. In contrast, CIS and invasive tumors frequently show alterations in the TP53 and RB genes and pathways. Invasion and metastases are promoted by several factors that alter the tumour microenvironment, including the aberrant expression of E-cadherins (E-cad), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).

Graphical representation of 'Bladder cancer (Pongo abelii (Sumatran orangutan))'
(PNG image hosted by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, KEGG).
This model has been automatically generated by KEGGtranslator V2.3.0 (KEGGtranslator: visualizing and converting the KEGG PATHWAY database to various formats. Wrzodek C, Dräger A, Zell A. Bioinformatics . 2011, 27 :2314-2315) using information coming from the KEGG PATHWAY Database ( original pathway ).
This model has been produced by the path2models project, it is currently hosted on BioModels Database and identified by: BMID000000016403 .
To the extent possible under law, all copyright and related or neighbouring rights to this encoded model have been dedicated to the public domain worldwide. Please refer to CC0 Public Domain Dedication for more information.
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