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Olfactory transduction - Pongo abelii


Model information
Identifier: BMID000000016460
Format: SBML L3 V1 (Layout, Qualitative Models)
Project: path2models
Categories: non-metabolic
Submission: 17 May 2012 17:46:26 UTC
Last modified: 08 Dec 2012 01:18:05 UTC
Published: 20 May 2012 00:49:21 UTC
isDescribedBy sensory perception of smell Gene Ontology
occursIn Pongo abelii Taxonomy
isDerivedFrom Olfactory transduction KEGG Pathway
Model of “Olfactory transduction” in “Pongo abelii (Sumatran orangutan)”
Within the compact cilia of the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) a cascade of enzymatic activity transduces the binding of an odorant molecule to a receptor into an electrical signal that can be transmitted to the brain. Odorant molecules bind to a receptor protein (R) coupled to an olfactory specific Gs-protein (G) and activate a type III adenylyl cyclase (AC), increasing intracellular cAMP levels. cAMP targets an olfactory-specific cyclic-nucleotide gated ion channel (CNG), allowing cations, particularly Na and Ca, to flow down their electrochemical gradients into the cell, depolarizing the ORN. Furthermore, the Ca entering the cell is able to activate a Ca-activated Cl channel, which would allow Cl to flow out of the cell, thus further increasing the depolarization. Elevated intracellular Ca causes adaptation by at least two different molecular steps: inhibition of the activity of adenylyl cyclase via CAMKII-dependent phosphorylation and down-regulation of the affinity of the CNG channel to cAMP.Longer exposure to odorants can stimulate particulate guanylyl cyclase in cilia to produce cGMP and activate PKG, leading to a further increase in amount and duration of intracellular cAMP levels, which may serve to convert inactive forms of protein kinase A (PKA2) to active forms (PKA*). As part of a feedback loop, PKA can inhibit the activation of particulate guanylyl cyclase.

Graphical representation of 'Olfactory transduction (Pongo abelii (Sumatran orangutan))'
(PNG image hosted by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, KEGG).
This model has been automatically generated by KEGGtranslator V2.3.0 (KEGGtranslator: visualizing and converting the KEGG PATHWAY database to various formats. Wrzodek C, Dräger A, Zell A. Bioinformatics . 2011, 27 :2314-2315) using information coming from the KEGG PATHWAY Database ( original pathway ).
This model has been produced by the path2models project, it is currently hosted on BioModels Database and identified by: BMID000000016460 .
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